Just published in Physical Review Letters, our latest work on a quantum spin glass with unusual dynamics. Spin glasses and many-body localization (MBL) are prime examples of ergodicity breaking, yet their physical origin is quite different: the former phase arises due to rugged classical energy landscape, while the latter is a quantum-interference effect. Here, we study quantum dynamics of an isolated 1D spin glass under application of a transverse field. At high energy densities, the system is ergodic, relaxing via a resonance avalanche mechanism, that is also responsible for the destruction of MBL in nonglassy systems with power-law interactions. At low energy densities, the interaction-induced fields obtain a power-law soft gap, making the resonance avalanche mechanism inefficient. This leads to the persistence of the spin-glass order, as demonstrated by resonance analysis and by numerical studies. A small fraction of resonant spins forms a thermalizing system with long-range entanglement, making this regime distinct from the conventional MBL. The model considered can be realized in systems of trapped ions, opening the door to investigating slow quantum dynamics induced by glassiness.
The readout of a microwave qubit state occurs using an amplification chain that enlarges the quantum state to a signal detectable with a classical measurement apparatus. However, at what point in this process is the quantum state really “measured”? To investigate whether the “measurement” takes place in the amplification chain, in which a parametric amplifier is often chosen as the first amplifier, we proposed to construct a microwave interferometer that has such an amplifier added to each of its arms. Feeding the interferometer with single photons, the interference visibility depends on the gain of the amplifiers and whether a measurement collapse has taken place during the amplification process.
My first paper with experimental groups is now published in Nature Physics. Our work is a detailed characterization of twisted bilayer graphene, with as highlight the direct observation of flat bands using nano-ARPES. I calculated the expected ARPES spectra, which can be seen in Fig 3 and 4 of the paper.
We have been working on twisted monolayer bilayer graphene (tMBG) for a while when suddenly three groups put their experimental results last week on the arXiv (UCSB, Columbia, Manchester). So we had to rush writing up everything we had, and now you can read our postdictions about the quantum anomalous Hall effect in tMBG!
Title: Topological Flat Bands and Correlated States in Twisted Monolayer-Bilayer Graphene Authors: Louk Rademaker, Ivan Protopopov, Dmitry Abanin Abstract: Monolayer graphene placed with a twist on top of AB-stacked bilayer graphene hosts topological flat bands in a wide range of twist angles. The dispersion of these bands and gaps between them can be efficiently controlled by a perpendicular electric field, which induces topological transitions accompanied by changes of the Chern numbers. In the regime where the applied electric field induces gaps between the flat bands, we find a relatively uniform distribution of the Berry curvature. Consequently, interaction-induced valley- and/or spin-polarized states at integer filling factors are energetically favorable. In particular, we predict a quantum anomalous Hall state at filling factor ν=1 for a range of twist angles 1<θ<1.4. Furthermore, to characterize the response of the system to magnetic field, we computed the Hofstadter butterfly and the Wannier plot, which can be used to probe the dispersion and topology of the flat bands in this material. Reference:arXiv:2004.14964
At the University of Geneva a group of enthusiastic graduate students have instigated a seminar series devoted to ‘relevant techniques in many-body physics’: the “ToolBoX“. I had the honor of providing the first set of lectures on density functional theory, for which I prepared some notes with exercises.. Download it here below!
Today our paper appeared on the arXiv describing the evidence for flat bands in twisted bilayer graphene. A really great effort, with experiments in Leiden and Barcelona and with our local Genevan Simone Lisi leading the ARPES effort. I’m very happy to have provided some theoretical work on this.
The month november was quite successful publication-wise, as four of my publications have been accepted.
Quenching the Kitaev honeycomb model Starting from an antiferromagnet, let it evolve with Kitaev’s spin liquid honeycomb model. I developed the technique to study what happens next, a combination of Majorana Loschmidt echo’s and gauge field Monte Carlo. A prethermal regime appears, characterized by magnetization oscillations that can be described by the toric code. Accepted by SciPost.
An Introduction to Spontaneous Symmetry Breaking Together with Aron Beekman and Jasper van Wezel, I wrote a lecture notes on the basics of spontaneous symmetry breaking. Aimed at graduate students, it is a modern overview containing both the classics (Mermin-Wagner theorem, Nambu-Goldstone modes) as well as modern notions (tower of states, type A/B symmetry breaking, topology). Accepted by SciPost Lecture Notes.
Abstract: I studied the non-equilibrium response of an initial Néel state under time evolution with the Kitaev honeycomb model. This time evolution can be computed using a random sampling over all relevant flux configurations. With isotropic interactions the system quickly equilibrates into a steady state valence bond solid. Anisotropy induces an exponentially long prethermal regime whose dynamics are governed by an effective toric code. Signatures of topology are absent, however, due to the high energy density nature of the initial state.
Title: Quantum Thermalization and the Expansion of Atomic Clouds
Authors: Louk Rademaker, Jan Zaanen
Abstract: The ultimate consequence of quantum many-body physics is that even the air we breathe is governed by strictly unitary time evolution. The reason that we perceive it nonetheless as a completely classical high temperature gas is due to the incapacity of our measurement machines to keep track of the dense many-body entanglement of the gas molecules. The question thus arises whether there are instances where the quantum time evolution of a macroscopic system is qualitatively different from the equivalent classical system? Here we study this question through the expansion of noninteracting atomic clouds. While in many cases the full quantum dynamics is indeed indistinguishable from classical ballistic motion, we do find a notable exception. The subtle quantum correlations in a Bose gas approaching the condensation temperature appear to affect the expansion of the cloud, as if the system has turned into a diffusive collision-full classical system.
Title: Phonon linewidth due to electron-phonon interactions with strong forward scattering in FeSe thin films on oxide substrates
Authors: Yan Wang, Louk Rademaker, Elbio Dagotto, Steven Johnston
Abstract: The discovery of an enhanced superconducting transition temperature Tc in monolayers of FeSe grown on several oxide substrates has opened a new route to high-Tc superconductivity through interface engineering. One proposal for the origin of the observed enhancement is an electron-phonon (e-ph) interaction across the interface that peaked at small momentum transfers. In this paper, we examine the implications of such a coupling on the phononic properties of the system. We show that a strong forward scattering leads to a sizable broadening of phonon lineshape, which may result in charge instabilities at long-wavelengths. However, we further find that the inclusion of Coulombic screening significantly reduces the phonon broadening. Our results show that one might not expect anomalously broad phonon linewidths in the FeSe interface systems, despite the fact that the e-ph interaction has a strong peak in the forward scattering (small q) direction.